Anti-Communist Resistance and Dissent

Activities against the communist regime are classified as the so-called Third Resistance for freedom and democracy.  Its representatives were active at home as well as in emigration. During the normalization, the centre of opposing activities in Slovakia was concentrated in the so-called secret church (secret bishops and priests, secret religious orders and education of theology that wasn’t controlled by the regime).  The peak of these activities presented signature campaigns for democratization of life, religious pilgrimages with political undertone, and especially, a demonstration for civic and religious rights (Candle Manifestation) that took place on March 25, 1988 in Bratislava. The opposing activities culminated before November 1989 by actions of grouping of the pro-democratic activists in Slovakia - the so-called Bratislava Five. In the Czech part, the opposing activities were gathered around organizations of the civil dissent as was the Charta 77 (Charter 77), Výbor na obranu nespravodlivo stíhaných (Committee for Defense of the Unfairly Prosecuted), Hnutie za občiansku slobodu (Movement for Civil Freedom), Helsinský výbor (Czech Helsinki Committee).

Photo: Ján Motulko


Ján Motulko took a fancy to literature, which became his real love. This outstanding Slovak poet and prose writer fell silent for some time after the year 1948; however, he never stopped writing. His literary works written in the oppression period were published later after the revolution. In his testimony, he is forthcoming about the sharp practices of the State Security and about his own experiences from the investigation.